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The Romanian Language

Romanian is an Indo-European language from Italic group and subgroup of oriental Romanic languages.

Among the Romanic languages, Romanian is the 5th based on the number of speakers, after:

• Spanish

• Portuguese

• French

• Italian

Romanian is spoken worldwide by 28 million people, out of which approx. 24 million have it as their mother tongue. Out of the total number of speakers, over 17 million are located in Romania, where Romanian (Daco-Romanian dialect) is the official language.

• Republic of Moldova, Romanian as the official language, being the native language of 2.5 million inhabitants.

• Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, where it is the official language.

• Neighbouring countries of Romania and Moldova, e.g. Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia (Timoc Valley), and Bulgaria.

• Romanian language speakers are also present in many other Western countries (due to emigration), such as Italy, Spain, United States, Canada, France, Portugal, Cyprus, Germany, and Australia (acc Romanian). Over 3 million Romanian speakers reside legally in Europe and North America.

• Romanian is one of the five languages in which religious services are celebrated in the monastic state of Mount Athos, an autonomous region of Greece, being spoken in the hermitages of Prodromu and Lacu.

• The extremes of Romanian language area are at west middle course of the Danube Basin (Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia and Poland) and the east, across the Dniester River

The influence of other languages

The Dacian language - was an Indo-European language, Thracian branch (or vice versa), spoken in the past on the territory of today's Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Ukraine and Hungary. It is assumed that it was the 1st language that influenced the Latin spoken in Dacia, but little is known about this language.

The Slavic languages - Slavic influence was the first occurring during the formation of the Romanian language, due to migration of the Slavic tribes (which crossed the territory of today's Romania). Slavic influence is felt at both phonetic and lexical levels. Up to 20% of the Romanian vocabulary has Slavic origin ("a iubi", "voce", "prieten"). However, many Slavic words are archaisms and it is estimated that only 10% of the modern Romanian vocabulary is of Slavic origin.

The Grammar

Romanian nouns are declined by gender (feminine, masculine and neuter), number (singular and plural) and case (nominative / accusative, dative / genitive and vocative). The article like the adjectives and pronouns, is accorded in gender and number with the noun it determines. Romanian has four verbal conjugations. Verbs can be put at four personal modes, namely (indicative, conjunctive, conditional-optative and imperative), and four impersonal modes (infinitive, gerund, supine, and participle).

 
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